Informàtica / Computers

General

X-Window


list comparison config












Debian Mandriva









display manager (login/password)


/etc/X11/default-display-manager /etc/sysconfig/desktop
  • DISPLAYMANAGER=kdm
  • DESKTOP=XBMC
XDM

GDM
KDM

WDM SLiM LXDM





/etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess

/usr/share/config/kdm/kdmrc
  • AutoLoginEnable=true
  • AutoLoginUser=user



/etc/lxdm/









New instance of kdm: kdmctl reserve





desktop environment
wp
/etc/X11/wmsession.d/
(available desktop environments at display manager)
  • 01KDE
  • 07IceWM
  • 15XBMC
  • 99MythFrontend

IRIX Interactive Desktop (Indigo Magic) GNOME Xfce KDE CDE

LXDE
  • Etoilé
  • GNUStep
  • ROX
  • UDE
widget toolkit wp



Motif GTK+ Qt
WINGs


window manager xwinman wp
  • ~/.xsession
  • update-alternatives --display x-window-manager

twm (vtwm, tvtwm, CTWM, FVWM) 4Dwm (Sawfish)
Metacity
Xfwm4 KWin
Window Maker Enlightenment

session manager




xsm



ksmserver



LXSession
autostart








Configure desktop -> Advanced ->  Autostart


(LXSession)





~/.xinitrc


  • aplications: ~/.config/autostart/*.desktop
  • scripts: ~/.kde4/Autostart/*.desktop
    ~/.kde4/share/autostart/*.desktop



  • aplications: ~/.config/autostart/*.desktop





aplicacions
entorns d'escriptori
cde gnome kde xfce
widgets / toolkits
forms / fltk gtk gtk-qt motif / lesstif qt wx-Windows
wxWidgets
gestors de finestres
fvwm MetaCity Enlightment Sawfish Compiz Beryl
gràfics
SDL
directfb x11 (fbdev)
x11 (drivers)
mgl nano-x open gl svgalib
fbdev
vesa
  • intelfb
  • nvidiafb
  • viafb
  • ...
(x11-drivers)



sistemes operatius creuats / màquines virtuals
(mac)
basilisk
()
()
bochs
()
cygwin
(ms-windows)
()
macwindows
()
(ppc-based)
pear pc
(x86)
()
plex86
()
softwindows
(irix)
(x86-based)
vmware
(x86)
openVZ xen
(x86)
kvm
(linux x86)
()
wine / xwine
()
()
DOSBox
()
()
qemu
()
(x86)
VirtualBox
(x86)
sistemes operatius
unix
freebsd gnu/linux hp-ux irix mac os-x netbsd solaris
ms-windows
casa empresa port
3.x, 95, 98, me, xp-he nt, 2000, xp-pe, 2003 ce
FreeDOS apple mac-os be-os os/2 NeXT Step / OpenStep / GNUStep palm os symbian
arquitectura
arm mips ppc sparc
x86
amd intel via

  • Gnome (GTK) (wp)
  • KDE (Qt) (wp)
    • Applications
      • ...
    • Themes
      • ...
  • wine

    • installation
      usage
      to run:
      Mageia

      wine management
      urpmi qtbase5-database-plugin-sqlite q4wine
      win32 programs
      urpmi wine32
      • WINEPREFIX=~/.toto_win_32 WINEARCH=win32 winecfg
      • WINEPREFIX=~/.toto_win_32 WINEARCH=win32 wine iexplore
      win64 programs
      urpmi wine64
      • WINEPREFIX=~/.toto_win_64 WINEARCH=win64 winecfg
      • WINEPREFIX=~/.toto_win_64 WINEARCH=win64 wine iexplore

    • Instal·lació / Installation
      • From source
        • dependencies
          • Mageia
            • urpmi libx11-devel libfreetype6-devel
        • git clone git://source.winehq.org/git/wine.git
        • cd wine
        • ./configure
        • make
        • sudo make install
      • Mageia
        • to run win64 programs
          • urpmi wine64
          • Més informació sobre el paquet wine64-2.0.2-1.mga6.x86_64
            This is the Win64 version of Wine. This version can only be used to run
            64-bit Windows applications as is. For running 32-bit Windows applications,
            you need to also install the 'wine32' package from the 32-bit repository.
        • to run win32 programs
          • urpmi wine32
        • gui
          • urpmi qtbase5-database-plugin-sqlite q4wine
    • Utilització / Usage
      • Win32 programs
        • WINEPREFIX=~/.toto_win_32 WINEARCH=win32 winecfg
          • Aplicacions
            • Versió de Windows: ...
        • WINEPREFIX=~/.toto_win_32 WINEARCH=win32 wine iexplore
        • wine "c://Program Files (x86)/SCARM/scarm.exe"
      • Win64 programs
        • WINEPREFIX=~/.toto_win_64 WINEARCH=win64 winecfg
        • WINEPREFIX=~/.toto_win_64 WINEARCH=win64 wine iexplore
    • Impressió / Print
    • winetricks
    • Wine application database
      • Lightworks
        • wine/linux
        • WineHQ Bug 25374
        • Solution:
          • urpmi cabextract
          • wget http://www.kegel.com/wine/winetricks
          • chmod +x ./winetricks
          • winetricks gdiplus d3dx9_36 vcrun2008 vcrun6 msxml3
          • ...
    • Problemes
      • Wine cannot find the FreeType font library. To enable Wine to use TrueType fonts please install a version of FreeType greater than or equal to 2.0.5.
        • Solució / Solution
          • install libfreetype6,  32-bit version
            • Mageia
              • enable 32-bit repositories
              • urpmi libfreetype6
      • err:module:import_dll Library libgcc_s_sjlj-1.dll (which is needed by L"C:\\windows\\system32\\gecko\\2.21\\wine_gecko\\nspr4.dll") not found
        • Solució / Solution
          • Wine-gecko depends on libgcc
          • Mageia
            • urpmi mingw32-gcc
            • cp /usr/i686-w64-mingw32/sys-root/mingw/bin/libgcc_s_sjlj-1.dll ~/.toto_win_32/drive_c/windows/system32
      • zlib1.dll not found:
      • Access violation at address 00000000 (e.g. with SCARM)
  • ReactOS

Particions a l'MBR / Partitions on MBR


MBR (/dev/hda) (Master Boot Record / Partition Sector): 512B (C=0, H=0, S=1)
back-up restore MBC particions / partitions (/dev/hdax)
points to boot sector (first 512 bytes of the active partition) name view / edit create filesystem
image
extract create bootloader
(ARCS)
create (format)
check and repair resize create recover
DOS


fdisk /mbr
c:, d:, e: ... ptedit fdisk format


dell restore
Ranish Partition Manager (part244)

Norton Ghost
win32

mkbt -c a: bootsect.bin MBR: fixmbr
VBR: fixboot
NTLDR: boot.ini ptedit32





xosl






Linux
  • install-mbr (mbr)
  • dd if=/dev/hda of=mbr.bin bs=512 count=1
  • dd if=mbr.bin of=/dev/hda bs=512 count=1











id mbr
primary / extended logical
IDE
(PATA)
prim. 0 /dev/hda
/dev/hda[1..4] /dev/hda[5..]
1 /dev/hdb
/dev/hdb[1..4] /dev/hdb[5..]
sec. 0 /dev/hdc
/dev/hdc[1..4] /dev/hdc[5..]
1 /dev/hdd
/dev/hdd[1..4] /dev/hdd[5..]
SCSI
USB
SATA

n /dev/sd[a-p] /dev/sd[a-p][1..]

  • fdisk -l
  • sfdisk -d
  • gpart (guess)
  • lsblk
dist

... gparted LiveCD mandriva
app GNU parted qtparted
gparted Disk Drake YaST
lib

ntfsresize
  • cfdisk /dev/hda
  • fdisk /dev/sdx
  • mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb6
  • mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb6
  • mkdosfs -I /dev/hdax (dosfstools)
  • fsck
  • e2fsck
  • resize2fs
    • -M: shrink
  • xfs_growfs (only grow, no shrink)
dist LiveCD
app partimage Device Image (zsplit)
Irix

dvhtool

controller id
SCSI 0 n /dev/dsk/dks0dns[0..15]

0: root 7 10: volume
1: swap
6: usr
8: volhdr (sash)
15: xfslog
types: efx/xfs, volhdr, raw, xfslog
  • prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/dks0d5s0
  • prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/dks0d5vh
  • fx
  • mkfs /dev/dsk/dks0d5s0
  • fsck



Sistemes operatius / Operating systems

Boot




MBR dev dev
name sector code name partition sector bootloader name part sector
name config


PC BIOS HDD MBR boot (first: 512B) MBC HDD boot / active boot (first: 512B) lilo lilo.conf HDD (any) first
NTLDR boot.ini

floppy
boot




CDROM






USB






SGI











Dreambox first stage
serial






NAND flash (JFFS2) 2nd stage first: 128KB 2nd stage loader
NAND flash boot
CF first
tftp

CF first






Desenvolupament / Development

framework .NET Java Platform

specification implementation specification impl
MS .NET MS .NET compact framework Mono SSCLI Portable .NET

language


(C# compiler)

  • Java

framework libraries
BCL

(partial)


  • JaveME (limited)
  • JavaSE (workstation)
  • JavaEE (server)

intermediate language / bytecode CLI:
CIL MSIL
x x
Java bytecode (.class)
runtime / virtual machine VES
CLR

JVM

OS








Perl

Python

Comercial / Commercial

Virtualització / Virtualisation

Cloud Computing (external virtualisation)


Service model
Recursos oferts /
Offered resources
L'usuari hi instal·la /
User can install
Implementació /
Implementation
Exemples / Examples




Amazon AWS Google other
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Aplicació / Application
-

  • Storage
    • Simple Storage Service (S3)
    • Glacier (backups) (wp)
  • Database
    • RDS (SQL)
    • DynamoDB (NoSQL)
  • Google Apps (wp)
  • Microsoft "Software+Services"
Platform as a Service (PaaS) Sistema Operatiu / Operating system
aplicacions / applications
  • EyeOS

  • Google AppEngine (wp)
  • IBM IT Factory
  • Force.com
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) CPU + Emmagatzematge + Xarxa /
CPU + Storage + Network
sistema operatiu / operating system
  • Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) (Xen)
  • IBM Blue Cloud
  • Sun Grid



OpenStack
AWS

Dashboard Horizon Console
Compute
Compute
Nova
EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud)


Lambda
A compute service that runs your code in response to events and automatically manages the compute resources for you.
Block storage Cinder ELB (Elastic Block Store)

Image service Glance AMI
Bare metal provisioning Ironic

Storage and content delivery
Object storage
Swift
S3 (Simple Storage Service)



Glacier
A low-cost storage service that provides secure and durable storage for data archiving and backup.


Cloud Front
Provides a way to distribute content to end users with low latency and high data transfer speeds.


Storage Gateway

Database SQL Trove RDS (Relational Database Service)



Elastic Cache



Redshift

NoSQL

DyanamoDB
A scalable NoSQL data store that manages distributed replicas of your data for high availability.
Networking
Networking
Neutron
VPC (Virtual Private Cloud)



Direct Connect

DNS

Route53 A scalable and highly available Domain Name System (DNS) and Domain Name Registration service.
Administration and security
Identity service
Keystone
Directory Service



Trusted Advisor



Config



IAM (Identity and Access Management)
Lets you securely control access to AWS services and resources.


CloudTrail
Provides increased visibility into user activity by recording API calls made on your account.


CloudWatch
Provides monitoring for resources and applications.
Analytics Elastic map reduce Sahara EMR (Elastic Map Reduce)
Lets you perform big data tasks such as web indexing, data mining, and log file analysis.


Kinesis
A managed service that scales elastically for real-time processing of streaming big data.
Orchestration Heat Data Pipeline
A lightweight orchestration service for periodic, data-driven workflows.
Application services Multiple tenant cloud messaging Zaqar SQS (Simple Queue Service)



AppStream



SES (Simple Email Service)



SWF (Simple WorkFlow)
Coordinates all of the processing steps within an application.


Elastic Transcoder
Lets you convert your media files in the cloud easily, at low cost, and at scale.


CloudSearch

Deployment and management

Elastic Beanstalk
An application container for deploying and managing applications.


CloudFormation
Lets you create and update a collection of related AWS resources in a predictable fashion.


CodeDeploy
Lets you fully automate code deployments.


OpsWorks
A DevOps platform for managing applications of any scale or complexity on the AWS cloud.
Mobile services

Cognito
A simple user identity and data synchronization service that helps you securely manage and synchronize app data for your users across their mobile devices.


Mobile Analytics



SNS (Simple Notification Service)
Lets you publish messages to subscribers or other applications.
Enterprise applications

WorkSpaces



WorkDocs



WorkMail


Telemetry
Ceilometer
Billing


OpenStack vs AWS:
OpenStack AWS


Project
Products and services
Dashboard
Horizon


Compute

Nova
EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) Compute


EC2 Container Service


AWS Lambda


Auto-scaling


Amazon VPC


Elastic Load Balancing
Bare Metal Provisioning
Ironic

Storage
Object storage
Swift
Amazon S3 Storage and content delivery


Amazon Glacier
Block Storage
Cinder
Amazon EBS
Shared Filesystems
Manila
Amazon EFS


AWS Import/Export


AWS Storage Gateway


Amazon CloudFront
Networking

Neutron
Amazon VPC
Networking


Direct Connect
DNS
Designate
Route53

Neutron/LBaaS
Elastic Load Balancing
Shared services
Identity service Keystone
AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)
Administration and security


AWS Directory Service


AWS CloudTrail


AWS Config


AWS CloudHSM
Key management
Barbican
AWS Key Management Service
Telemetry service Ceilometer Amazon CloudWatch


AWS Truster Advisor
Image service Glance
AMI

Orchestration service
AWS Elastic Beanstalk
Deployment & Management

AWS OpsWorks
Heat
AWS CloudFormation
Heat/AutoScaling

TripleO (OpenStack on OpenStack)


AWS CodeDeploy
Database service Trove

Amazon RDS
Database
DynamoDB

Aurora (*)

Redshift

ElastiCache

Data processing
Sahara (Hadoop)
Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR)
Analytics



Amazon Kinesis



Amazon Redshift



AWS Data Pipeline

Message service
Zaqar
Amazon SQS (Simple Queue Service)
Application Services



Amazon SWF (Simple Workflow Service)



Amazon AppStream



Amazon Elastic Transcoder



Amazon SES (Simple Email Service)



Amazon CloudSearch



Amazon SNS (Simple Notification Service)



Amazon FPS (Flexible Payment Service)



Amazon Cognito
Mobile Services



Amazon Mobile Analytics



Amazon SNS (Simple Notification Service)



Amazon WorkSpaces
Enterprise Applications



Amazon WorkDocs



AWS Support
AWS Support



AWS Trusted Advisor

Marketplace


AWS Marketplace



Alexa Web Information Service
Additional Services

Parcs d'ordinadors / Clusters

Seguretat / Security

Quiosc / Kiosk

  • KDE Kiosk
    • urpmi kiosktool

Execució distribuïda / Distributed execution

Accés remot / Remote access

VPN (Virtual Private Network)


base
name
owner
info
used protocols
implementations
encryption user authentication
packet authentication


compression
server
client




passive attacks (eavesdroppers)

active attack (man-in-the-middle)
replay attacks
plaintext attacks


vpnc (command line)
KVpnc (KDE)
drakvpn (mdv/mga)
Network Manager
(others)
IPSec (kernel)
L2TP over IPsec (Cisco)




HMAC construction





x




FreeSwan















PPTP
Microsoft

  • MPPE
    • 40 bits
    • 128 bits
  • CHAP (MS-CHAP)
  • EAP



  • MPPC (based on LZ)
  • Deflated
  • BSD compression (RFC 1977)


x


TUN/TAP (user-space)
OpenVPN (over OpenSSL/TLS)

  • PKI (X.509 certificates)
  • Clau estàtica / Static key

HMAC construction (wp) sliding window (unique timestamp)




x



VTun










x




Tinc















Cipe















OpenSSH
only valid for one port







x





Distributed software

architecture

protocol
used by / examples
Web Services language message format
implementations IDE




used
descr lang
HTTP methods



pipes, filters









compound documents









RPC: Remote procedure call
operation-oriented
CORBA







DCOM Microsoft






DCOP KDE <=3.4






D-BUS (*) xorg, KDE 3.5






Java EE







Java RMI







RPyC (wp)







XML-RPC


POST




JasonRPC ?


POST, GET



SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
(evolution of XML-RPC)
x
WSDL POST
markup languages
XML
Frameworks
Eclipse WTP
SOA: Service-oriented architecture message-oriented
x






REST: Representational state transfer
stateless resources WWW

RESTful (constraints)
WSDL 2.0
GET, POST, DELETE, PUT
Internet media typeJSON, XML, YAML, ...

Enginyeria del programari / Software engineering

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