Audio / Video

Index

General




video audio
Analogue
4:3
  • PAL
  • SECAM
  • NTSC

16:9
  • PAL Plus
  • (D2-MAC)
Digital NICAM

  • NICAM
    (PAL, SECAM)
MPEG 1
  • Video-CD

  • Layer I: DCC (Digital Compact Cassette)
  • Layer II: MP2
  • Layer III: MP3
2
  • DVB
    (Digital Video Broadcasting)
  • DVD-Video
    (Digital Versatile Disk)
  • ATSC
    (Advanced Television Systems Commitee)
  • SVCD

  • Layer I
  • Layer II
  • Layer III
  • AAC-> LiquidAudio, MP4, a2b
4
  • DivX ;-)

  • AAC
  • TwinVQ
Dolby Digital (AC-3)

DTS

PCM



  • CD-Audio
  • DAT
DVD-Audio

ATRAC

DSD


Resolucions / Resolutions


width
128 176 320 352 360 384 400 480 528 544 640 704 720 768 800 853 960 1024 1056 1152 1280 1366 1400 1408 1440 1600 1680 1920 2048 3840
height 96 SQCIF




























120
QCIF



























144
QCIF



























176

W-QVGA


























200

CGA


























220
QCIF+



























240

QVGA CIF-601, D4, SIF* SIF
























288


CIF-601, D4, SIF* SIF x




D3

















320





x HVGA





















350









EGA


















352






x





















360









nHD


















384






x





















480


1/2 D1, D2


2/3 D1 3/4 D1 x VGA CCIR-601, D1, 4CIF CCIR-601, D1 x W-VGA W-VGA













512









x


















544















x












576


1/2 D1, D2


2/3 D1 3/4 D1 x
CCIR-601, D1, 4CIF CCIR-601, D1 x


W-SVGA











600













SVGA














720















x
9CIF
720








768
















XGA

W-XGA W-XGA







800



















W-XGA








854


















XGA+









864

















9CIF










900























W-XGA+




960



















x

16CIF





1024



















SXGA








1035


























x

1050





















SXGA+


W-SXGA+


1080























x

1080

1152






















16CIF x

x

1200
























UXGA
W-UXGA

1536



























QXGA
2160




























4K
Aspect ratio:
  • 5:4 (1.25)
  • 4:3 (1.33)
  • 16:10 (1.60)
  • 15:9 (1.66)
  • 16:9 (1.77)

Resolucions de pantalla / Screen resolutions 

name resolution aspect W name W resolution aspect used
QXGA 2048x1536 1.33 (4:3)



UXGA 1600x1200 1.33 (4:3) W-UXGA 1920x1200 1.60 (16:10)




1920x1080 1.77 (16:9) Full HD
SXGA+ 1400x1050 1.33 (4:3) W-SXGA+ 1680x1050 1.60 (16:10)
SXGA 1280x1024 1.25 (5:4)



XGA+ 1152x854 1.35 W-XGA+ 1440x900 1.60 (16:10)
XGA 1024x768 1.33 (4:3) W-XGA 1366x768 1.77 (16:9) HD Ready
1280x768 1.66 (15:9)
1280x800 1.60 (16:10)
SVGA 800x600 1.33 (4:3) W-SVGA 1024x576 (Sharp Aquos P) 1.77 (16:9)



nHD 640x360 1.77 (16:9)
VGA 640x480 1.33 (4:3) W-VGA 853x480 1.77 (16:9)
800x480 1.66 (15:9)
EGA 640x350 1.82



HVGA 480x320 1.33 (4:3)



QVGA 320x240 1.33 (4:3) W-QVGA 320x176 1.81
CGA 320x200 1.6



Pantalles / Screens

Programari / Software


audio video/audio
file TV (analogue) frontend DVB frontend
play Amarok


Freeamp


Songbird (iTunes)



Democracy Player


Mplayer

mplayerxp


kmplayer


ffdshow (MS windows)


Freevo

MythTV

Open Quicktime


PYUV Player (yuv)


Real Player


XANIM


xine
kaffeine

totem 

XMMS (.com)


XMPS


VideoLAN/VLC

Ogle DVD player







xawtv (X11) / fbtv (framebuffer/console)


xawdecode / xdTV


kdetv kwintv - QtVision 


tvtime


AVview


fstv (svgalib, fbdev or glide)


taztv


Exo TV (ATI AIW)


Zapping



Klear



KaxTV



qdvbzap
edit Audacity 


DAP


Mix


SOX - Sound eXchange
Studio (gui)




Auteur (*)


Avidemux


Avisynth


Blender (sequencer)


Cinelerra


Film Gimp Cinepaint


EditShare (Lightworks)


flowblade (MLT)


Jahshaka


jumptheshark (cli)


Kaltura (Flash, HTML5)


kdenlive (vectoscopi / vectorscope)


Kino (Linux DV)
SMIL Utils



KmPg2 (KDE MPEG2 encoder)


Lightworks (wine)


Linux Video Editing System (LiVES)


Linux Video Editor - LVE


Linux Video Studio


melt (command line) (MLT)


Motion Perfect (DynaPel)


mpgtx (command linne)


OpenMovieEditor


OpenShot


PiTiVi


PVAStrumento


Shotcut (MLT)


slowmoVideo


VirtualDub


VLMC (trac) (videolan)


Stopmotion (frame by frame)



Project X
convert / transcode
3gp movie wizard


AutoMKV (MS Windows)


Avidemux


Carbon Coder


Digital Rapids


Episode Encoder (Telestream) ($495-$995)


ffmpeg / ffmpegX (MacOX)


Handbrake


iriverter


konverter


MeGUI


mencoder / MediaCoder (MS Windows)


pspvideo9


MPEG4IP


MP4Box / YAMB (GPAC)


OggConvert (Ogg, Theora, Dirac, Vorbis)


pspvideo9


restream


RipCode


SUPER (ffmpeg, mencoder...) (MS Windows)


TCVP


TMPGEnc


transcode


VideoLan VLC

analysis / info
DVB utilities: dvbt-ts-info (Linux-DVB-DVBT-TS-0.07) (perl CPAN)


audio file TV (analogue) frontend DVB frontend
video/audio

3D Vídeo

DLNA / UPnP

Resolucions vídeo digital / Digital video resolutions

name h_size PAL (25ips, 50Hz) NTSC (30ips, 60Hz) used by MPEG-2 level
resolution
(active)
size aspect resolution
(active)
size aspect





7680 x 4320

SHV

1920 1920 x 1152

1920 x 1080
1.77 (16:9) HDTV (1080i, 1080p) High





1920 x 1035




1440 1440 x 1152

1440 x 1080


High-1440
16CIF 1408 1408 × 1152

1408 × 960




1280


1280 x 720
1.77 (16:9) HDTV (720p)
9CIF 1056 1056 × 864

1056 × 720




768 768 x 576 442368 1.33 (4:3) 768 x 480 368640 1.60 DV, DivX
Full CCIR-601, CCIR-601 D1 720 720 x 576 414720 1.25 (5:4) 720 x 480 345600 1.50 most DVD Main
CCIR-601 1/1 D1, cropped CCIR-601 D1, D1, 4CIF 704 704 x 576 405504 1.22 704 x 480 337920 1.46 some DVD

640 640 x 512 327680 1.25 (5:4) 640 x 480

DivX, (sq.p. NTSC)

544 544 x 576 313344 0.94 544 x 480

(LD)
3/4 D1 528 528 x 576 304128 0.92 528 x 480 253440 1.10 (LD)
2/3 D1 480 480 x 576 276480 0.84 480 x 480 230400 1.00 SVCD
1/2 D1, D2 352 352 x 576 202752 0.61 352 x 480 168960 0.73 DVD, CVD, (SVHS)
D3
704 x 288 202752 2.44





480


480 x 352




480 x 384 184320 1.25 (5:4) 480 x 320 153600 1.50 DivX

400 400 x 320 128000 1.25 (5:4)


DivX

384 384 x 288 110592 1.33 (4:3)


DivX
SIF 360 360 x 288

360 x 240



CIF-601, D4, SIF* 352 352 x 288 101376 1.22 352 x 240 84480 1.26 VCD, DVD, (VHS) Low
QCIF+ 176 176 x 220

176 x 220



QCIF 176 x 144

176 x 120



SQCIF 128 128 x 96







* DVB MPEG2: ETSI TS 101 154 Annex A

128 144 176 320 352 360 384 400 480 528 544 640 704 720 768 960 1056 1280 1408 1440 1920
80

30 (A)


















96
SQCIF
30 (A)




















144


QCIF
15 (A), 30 (B)


















176



W-QVGA 15 (B), 30 (C)
















220


QCIF

















224







30 (C)












240



QVGA 15 (B), 30 (C) CIF
(a)
, 24p, 30p, 60p, 30i
SIF














288




CIF
(a), 25p, 50p, 25i
SIF x




D3 (b)







320







x x











352








x











360











nHD








384








x











480 i



(c), 30p, 24p, 30i


(d), 30p, 24p, 30i (e) x, 30p, 24p, 30i x30p, 24p, 30i 4CIF (f) CCIR-601 (g)
30Hz
(NTSC)
30i, 30i
x





p











4CIF
30Hz
24p, 30p, 60p, 30p, 60p







576 i



D2 (c), 25p, 25i


(d), 25p, 25i (e) x 25p, 25i
4CIF (f) CCIR-601 (g)
25Hz (PAL)
 25i, 25i
x





p



D2






4CIF
25Hz
25p, 25p,  50p







720 i















9CIF



p










25Hz 30Hz
25p, 50p 24p, 30p, 60p



25Hz 30Hz
25p, 50p 24p, 30p, 60p
25Hz 30Hz
50p, 25p, 50p 24p, 30p, 60p, 24p, 30p, 60p



864
















9CIF



960


















16CIF

1035




















x
1080 i














25Hz 30Hz
25i 30i

25Hz 30Hz
25i 30i

25Hz 30Hz
25i 30i
25Hz 30Hz
25i, 25i 30i, 30i
p














25Hz 30Hz
25p 24p

25Hz 30Hz
25p 24p

25Hz 30Hz
25p 24p
25Hz 30Hz
24p, 25p, 25p 24p,
30p, 24p
1152


















16CIF x x

128
176
352 360 384 400 480 528 544 640 704 720 768 960 1056 1280 1408 1440 1920
ETSI TS 101 154 v1.8 (MPEG-2 TS) Annex A - Full screen luminance resolutions for SDTV and HDTV:
  • DVB MPEG2
  • DVB AVC
ETSI TS 102 005 (IP):
  • 480i, 576i, 720p, 1080i, 1080p
  • Annex B: DVB-IP datacast
    • H264/AVC
    • VC-1
MPEG-2 level:
  • low
  • main
  • high-1440
  • high
* 30i = 30 frames/s = 60 fields/s
** 30p = 30 frames/s
Notes:
  • a: CIF-601, D4, SIF*
  • b: D3
  • c: 1/2 D1, D2
  • d: 2/3 D1
  • e: 3/4 D1
  • f: CCIR-601 1/1 D1, cropped CCIR-601 D1, D1, 4CIF
  • g: Full CCIR-601, CCIR-601 D1

ITU-R  SMPTE EBU 3299

frames/s fields/s lines/frame samples/line
sampling rate (MHz) bitrate (Mbps) at 4:2:2 anamorphic (ARS)

EHRI LSDI
luma chroma sample aspect ratio target square active pixels / line pixel aspect ratio (PAR)

active
(AL/F)
total active
(S/AL)
total
(S/TL)
active total
luma chroma
(4:2:2)
8b 10b 4:3 16:9 DAR
4:3
DAR
16:9
BT 601



NTSC
(480i)
i30 30 59.94 480 525 720 858 360 429
13,50 6,75 216 270 480*4/3 = 640 480*16/9 = 853 640/704 (10/11)
640/720? ()
853/704 ()
853/720? ()




PAL
(576i)
i25 25 50 576 625 720 864 360 432 720/576 = 5/4 13,50 6,75 216 270 576*4/3 = 768 576*16/9 = 1024 768/704 (12/11)
768/720? (16/15)
1024/704 (16/11)
1024/720? (64/45)
BT-1543

296M S3
720 p60 60 - 720 750 1280 1980


74,25

921.6







S1 p50 50 -




0.92G



BT-709



1125 i30 30 60 1035 1125




74,25 37,125





BT 709 (>=4) EHRI-0 BT-1680 274 S6 S2 1080 i25 25 50 1080 1125 1920 2640


74,25

1036.8





i30 30 60












p24 24 -










274 S9 S3 p25 25 -


74,25

1036.8





p30 30 60










274 S3 S4 p50 50 -


148.5

2073.6





p60 60 -














1250 i25 25 50 1152 1250




74,25 37,125





BT.2020 EHRI-1 BT-1769

4k


2160
3840












EHRI-2






3240
5760











BT.2020 EHRI-3 BT-1769

Super Hi-Vision


4320
7680












Relació d'aspecte / Aspect ratio


...

Refresc / Framerates

Entrellaçat / Interlace

Colorimetria / Colorimetry

  • Colorimetria / Colorimetry
  • Documents:
    • colorimetria.ods
    • Colour primaries and reference white:
    • ITU-R BT.601: "2.6  Colour and opto-electronic transfer characteristic"
      • reference white:

        • 625 / 525

          x y
          D65 0.3127 0.3290
      • primary colours:

        • 625 525

          x y x y
          R 0.640 0.330 0.630 0.340
          G 0.290 0.600 0.310 0.595
          B 0.150 0.060 0.155 0.070
    • EBU primaries: EBU Tech.3213 "EBU standard for chromacity tolerances for studio monitors"
      • reference white:

        • CIE 1931 CIE 1960

          x y u v
          D65 0.313 0.329 0.1978 0.3122
      • primary colours:

        • CIE 1931 CIE 1960

          x y u v
          R 0.64 0.33 0.451 0.349
          G 0.29 0.60 0.121 0.374
          B 0.15 0.06 0.175 0.105
  • Gamma
    • EBU Tech 3320:
      • system_gamma (1.2) = camera_encoding_gamma_OETF (0.51) x display_gamma_EOTF (2.35)
    • Gamma FAQ
  • Chroma subsampling (wp)
    • Chrominance Subsampling in Digital Images (pdf) 4:2:0, 4:2:2, ... 4:x:x explained
    • Notació / Notation
      • J/a/b
        • J (usually 4): width of a 2-row reference block
        • a: number of chroma samples in the first row
        • b: number of chroma samples in the second row
    • ●: Y'+Cb+Cr; ○: Y'
    • 4:1:0
    • 4:1:1
    • 4:2:0
    • 4:2:2
    • 4:4:0
    • 4:4:4
  • Demos

Sincronització àudio/vídeo / Audio/video synchronisation


  • Streaming audio/video synchronisation

  • solució / solution ffmpeg vlc kdenlive snowmix


    -itsoffset Eines -> Sincronització de la pista Afegeix un clip
    Ungroup
    Edita la durada
    add silence / delay
    l'àudio està avançat respecte el vídeo /
    audio is ahead of the video (e.g. 200ms at 25fps)
    retardar l'àudio /
    delay the audio
    ffmpeg -i clip.mp4 -itsoffset 0.200 -i clip.mp4 -c copy -map 0:0 -map 1:1 output.mp4
    Sincronització de la pista d'àudio: 0,200ms (Retardat) Àudio -> Posició: 00:00:00:08
    • temporarily
      • audio feed add silence 1 200
      • audio mixer add silence 1 200
      • audio sink add silence 1 200
    • permanently
      • audio feed delay ...
      • audio mixer delay ...
      • audio sink delay ...
    l'àudio està retardat respecte el vídeo /
    audio is behind the video (e.g. 100ms at 25fps)
    retardar el vídeo /
    delay the video
    ffmpeg -i clip.mp4 -itsoffset 0.200 -i clip.mp4 -c copy -map 0:1 -map 1:0 output.mp4
    Sincronització de la pista d'àudio: -0,100ms (Accelerat) Vídeo -> Posició: 00:00:00:04
    • permanently
      • system output delay ...

Pantalles TV Screens - Distàncies/Distances

dimensions distància d (cm)
D
(diagonal)
H
(alçada)
W
(amplada)
480 576 720 1080
(HD)
2160
(UHD)
4320 N
(# of lines)
7H 6H (5H-7H) 4,78H 3,19H 1,6H
0,75H d =  H /(2(N-1)tg(1'/2))
" cm 4/3 16/9 4/3 16/9 4/3 16/9 4/3 16/9 16/9 16/9 16/9 16/9








15deg H
30deg H

100deg  H


0,60D 0,49D 0,8D 0,87D 4,2D 3,5D 3,6D 3D 2,39D 1,5D



3W/4 9W/16 4H/3 16H/9




1,7W

65"










257
128

55"









218
109

50" 130 78 64 104 113 560 457 466 381 304 203

49"










194
97

46" 117 70 57 93 102 503 411 419 342 274 182

43" 109

54

95





170
85

42" 107 64 52 86 93 461 376 383 313 251 167

40" 102 61 50 82 89 439 358 366 298 239 159

32 " 82 49 40 66 71 353 288 294 240 192 128

30" 76 46 37 61 66 327 267 272 222 178 119

28" 72 43 35 58 63 310 253 258 211 169 112

25" 63 38 31 50 55 222 221 226 185 148 98


Acústica / Acoustics

Àudio / Audio

Càmeres / Cameras


y (mm) x (mm) d (mm)
1" 12,8 9,6 16
2/3" 8,8 6,6 11
1/2" 6,4 4,8 8
1/3" 4,8 3,6 6
1/4" 3,6 2,7 4,5
  • HD Camcorder database (slashCAM)
  • Formats
    • Sony RX100V
        File format
        Record setting
        video
        audio
        data
        file

        major_brand

        resolution
        framerate coder
        bitrate
        sampling rate
        channels coder bitrate
        coder
        bitrate

        XAVC S 4K

        25p 100M










        25p 60M










        XAVC S HD
        XAVC
        50p 50M 1920x1080
        50 fps, 50 tbr h264 (High)
        50011 kb/s
        48000 Hz
        2ch pcm_s16be (twos) 1536 kb/s
        none (rtmd)
        409 kb/s
        PRIVATE/M4ROOT/CLIP/Cxxxx.MP4
        25p 50M










        100p 100M










        100p 60M










        AVCHD

        50i 24M(FX)










        50i 17M(FH)










        50p 28M(PS)










        25p 24M(FX)










        25p 17M(FH)










        MP4

        1920x1080 50p 28M










        1920x1080 25p 16M










        1280x720 25p 6M










        HFR
  • Sistema de fitxers / Filesystem
    • Video cameras
      • Sony Handycam HDR-CX550VE
        • Internal memory
          • ...
        • SD card
          • AVF_INFO/
            • AVINxxxx.INT
            • AVINxxxx.INP
            • AVINxxxx.BNP
          • PRIVATE/
            • AVCHD/
              • BDMV/
                • CLIPINF/
                  • xxxxx.CPI
                • INDEX.BDM
                • MOVIEOBJ.BDM
                • PLAYLIST/
                  • xxxxx.MPL
                • STREAM/
                  • xxxxx.MTS
      • Sony Action Cam
        • ...
    • Photo cameras
      • Canon Digital Ixus 860
        • DCIM/
          • 100CANON/
            • IMG_xxxx.JPG
            • MVI_xxxx.THM
            • MVI_xxxx.AVI
          • CANONMSC/
        • MISC/
          • M01xx.CTG
        • SNDR/
      • Nikon D90
        • DCIM/
          • 100NCD90/
            • DSC_xxxx.JPG
            • DSC_xxxx.NEF
            • DSC_xxxx.AVI
        • NIKON/
          • CUSTOMPC/
        • NIKONxxx.DSC
      • Sony RX100V
        • AVF_INFO/
          • AVINxxxx.INT
          • PRVxxxxx.BIN
        • DCIM/
          • 100MSDCF/
            • DSCxxxxx.JPG
            • DSCxxxxx.ARW
        • MISC/
        • MP_ROOT/
          • 100ANV01/
        • PRIVATE/
          • AVCHD/
            • BDMV/
              • CLIPINF/
                • xxxxx.CPI
              • INDEX.BDM
              • MOVIEOBJ.BDM
              • PLAYLIST/
                • xxxxx.MPL
              • STREAM/
                • xxxxx.MTS
          • M4ROOT/
            • CLIP/
              • Cxxxx.MP4
              • CxxxxMyy.XML
            • GENERAL/
            • MEDIAPRO.XML
            • STATUS.BIN
            • SUB/
            • THMBNL/
              • CxxxxTyy.JPG
          • SONY/

Car audio

Comercial / Commercial

Component Connectivity

  • Open S-link project
  • Nirvis
  • HAVi (Home Audio Video Interoperability)
  • IEEE 1394 vs. DVI 
  • Serial Digital Interface - SDI (wp)(vp)
    • name standard bit-rate
      SD-SDI SMPTE 259M
      • 270 Mbps (10b,4:2:2) (13,5*10+6,75*10+6,75*10)
      • 360 Mbps (16:9)
      • 177 Mbps (8b, 4:2:0) (13,5*8+6,75*8+audio)
      ED-SDI SMPTE 344M
      HD-SDI SMPTE 292M
      Dual link HD-SDI SMPTE 372M
      3G-SDI SMPTE 424M
    • Synchronisation packets:
      • 4 10bit words
        1st 2nd 3rd XYZ word
        1 F V H p3p2p1p0 00
        0x3FF
        1111111111b
        0x000
        0000000000b
        0x000
        0000000000b
        1 0


        00 first field
        1

        second field

        0
        active picture

        1
        vertical interval


        0 Start of Active Video (SAV)


        1 End of Active Video (EAV)
    • Ancilliary data (audio, subtitles, timecode, metadata):
      • 0x000, 0x3FF, 0x3FF


    • line 720 pixels 12 pixels 132 pixels

      pixel ->
      0,1 ... 718,719 720, 721 (EAV) ... 730, 731 732, 733 ... 862, 863 (SAV)

      sample ->
      0 1 2 3 ... 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 ... 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 ... 1724 1725 1726 1727
      first field vertical F1:1



      ...



      0x3FF 0x000 0x000 .011.....









      0x3FF 0x000 0x000 .010.....