Electrònica / Electronics

Índex

General

Botigues / Shops

Components

  • Components (Electronics Club)
  • Codi de colors (wp)
  • Resistència / Resistor
    • Valors
      • 560R = 560Ω
      • R47 = 0.47Ω
      • 47R = 47Ω
      • 3R9 = 3.9Ω
      • 2k7 = 2700Ω
      • 1M2 = 1.2MΩ


    • multi
      tolerància
      0
      negre
      ×1

      1
      marró
      ×10

      2
      vermell
      ×100
      ±2%
      3
      taronja
      ×1.000
      4
      groc
      ×10.000
      5
      verd
      ×100.000
      6
      blau
      ×1.000.000
      7
      violeta
      ×10.000.000
      8
      gris
      ×100.000.000
      9
      blanc
      ×1.000.000.000

      daurat

      ±5%

      argent

      ±10%
    • E3
      E6
      E12
      E24
      E48
      E96
      E192

      ±20% ±10% ±5% ±2% ±1% ±0.5%
      10 10 10 10





      11





      12 12





      13




      15 15 15





      16





      18 18





      20



      22 22 22 22





      24





      27 27





      30




      33 33 33





      36





      39 39





      43



      47 47 47 47





      51





      56 56





      62




      68 68 68





      75





      82 82





      91



  • Condensador / Capacitor
  • Díode / Diode
  • Transistor
    • ...
  • ...

Electrònica de consum / Consumer electronics

Mesures / Measures

Microcontroladors / Microcontrollers

PCB

Connectors

Cables
  • Cable de parell trenat / Twisted pair
    • Categoria / Category
      • categoria


        CAT 5 100Mbps 100MHz
        CAT 5e 1Gbps 125MHz
        CAT 6 1Gbps 250MHz
        CAT 6a 10Gbps 500MHz
        CAT 7 10Gbps 600MHz
        CAT 8 40Gbps 2000MHz
    • Apantallament / Shield
      • U – sense apantallar / unshielded
        F – pantalla de làmina / foil shielding
        S – pantalla de cable trenat / braided shielding (outer layer only)
        TP – cable trenat / twisted pair
        TQ – twisted pair, individual shielding in quads
      • industry ISO/IEC 11801 cable parell
        UTP U/UTP - -
        STP U/FTP -
        FTP F/UTP x -
        STP S/UTP x x
        SFTP


Programari / Software

  • Thac's MDK 9.2 utils 
  • Comparison of EDA software (wp)
  • List of free electronics circuit simulators (wp)
  • Useful Tools for Drawing Electrical Circuits
  • Android
    • Resistor colours
    • Resistor colours (optical) (tbd)
  • EDA suite
    (gplEDA, wp)
    schema
    simulation
    pcb edit
    pcb view

    Dia




    qelectrotech



    XCircuit





    Eagle PCB Software
    EasyEDA (web)
    x

    x

    Fritzing x

    x




    PCB 123
    gEDA
    gschem

    PCB
    KiCAD
    Eeschema
    Pcbnew GerbView
    Upverter (web)







    PCB (sf)




    gerbv


    gwave




    GTKWave



    Icarus Verilog



    NGSpice



    oregano



    Qucs

  • Circuits
    • KiCad EDA
    • Fritzing
      • Fritzing Fab (Aisler) (PCB manufacturing)
      • Instal·lació / Installation
        • Download
        • Mageia
          • urpmi fritzing
        • Des de codi font / From source code
          • 1. Building Fritzing / 4. Publishing a release (release.sh)
            • Info
            • Dependències / Dependencies
              • Mageia
                • urpmi libboost-devel lib64qt5serialport-devel lib64qt5printsupport-devel lib64qt5network-devel lib64qt5sql-devel lib64qt5concurrent-devel lib64qt5svg-devel
              • From source
                • libgit2
                  • dependències
                    • Mageia
                      • urpmi lib64ssh2-devel
                  • cd ~/src/
                  • wget https://github.com/libgit2/libgit2/releases/download/v1.0.1/libgit2-1.0.1.tar.gz
                  • tar xvf libgit2-1.0.1.tar.gz
                  • ln -s libgit2-1.0.1 libgit2
                  • cd libgit2-1.0.1
                  • mkdir build && cd build
                  • cmake -DBUILD_SHARED_LIBS=OFF ..
                  • cmake --build .
                  • sudo make install
            • Compilació / Compilation
              • git clone https://github.com/fritzing/fritzing-app.git
              • git clone https://github.com/fritzing/fritzing-parts.git
              • cd fritzing-app
              • git checkout 0.9.4-fixes
              • cd tools/linux_release_script/
              • ./release.sh 0.9.4
        • File formats:
          • bin: .fzb (only references to .fzp); .fzbz (created calling "Export bin"; zip containing real files: .fzb, .fzp, .svg)
            • part: .fzp (only refences to .svg); .fzpz (created calling "Export part";zip containing real files: .fzp, .svg)
              • graphic: .svg (breadboard, icon, pcb, schematic) (created with external tools, e.g. Inkscape)
        • File structure
          • .fzbz


            .fzpz
            bin part graphic
            .fzb .fzp .svg
            references to .fzp references to .svg
            • module
              • title
              • instance
            • module
              • views
                • iconView
                  • layers
                    • layer
                    • layer
                    • ...
                • breadboardView
                • schematicView
                • ...
              • connectors
              • ...

        • Dirs
          • system user
            • /usr/share/fritzing/
            • ~/.config/Fritzing/
              • fzz/
              • partfactory/
            parts from distribution:
            • /usr/share/fritzing/parts/
            • .../fritzing-0.9.3b.linux.AMD64/fritzing-parts/
            saved from parts editor:
            • ~/Documents/Fritzing/parts/
            bins/
            • *.fzb

            svg/
            • contrib/
              • breadboard/
              • icon/
              • pcb/
              • schematc/
            • core/
              • breadboard/
              • icon/
              • pcb/
              • schematic/
            • obsolete/
              • breadboard/
              • icon/
              • pcb/
              • schematic/
            • user/
              • breadboard/
              • icon/
              • pcb/
              • schematic/
            svg/
            • contrib/
              • breadboard/
              • icon/
              • pcb/
              • schematc/
            • user/
              • breadboard/
                • <prefix>_<random>_<index>_breadboard.svg
              • icon/
                • <prefix>_<random>_<index>_icon.svg
              • pcb/
                • <prefix>_<random>_<index>_pcb.svg
              • schematc/
                • <prefix>_<random>_<index>_schematic.svg
            contrib/
            • placeholder.txt

            core/
            • *.fzp

            obsolete/
            • *.fzp

            user/
            • placeholder.txt
            • 74xx08.fzp
            user/
            • <prefix>_<random>_<index>.fzp
      • Parts
        • regenerate database
          • fritzing -db /path/to/parts/parts.db
          • Part -> Regenerate parts database
        • custom parts
          • Rules
            • Download fonts and templates
              • Instal·leu els tipus de lletres / Install fonts
                • wget http://fritzing.org/media/uploads/learning/graphic_standards/fontsandtemplates.zip
                • unzip fontsandtemplates.zip
                • cd FontsAndTemplates/Fonts
                • mkdir ~/.local/share/fonts/
                • cp */*.ttf ~/.local/share/fonts/
                • fc-cache -f -v
                • fc-list
                  • .../.local/share/fonts/OCRA.ttf: OCRA:style=Regular
                    .../.local/share/fonts/OCRA.otf: OCRA:style=Medium
                    .../.local/share/fonts/DroidSans.ttf: Droid Sans:style=Regular
                    .../.local/share/fonts/DroidSans-Bold.ttf: Droid Sans:style=Bold
                    .../.local/share/fonts/DroidSansMono.ttf: Droid Sans Mono:style=Regular
            • 2.1 Part file format
              • FZP format
                • <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
                  <module moduleId="1a4bfb87a0f0fd2c59be43f3497d72e6" fritzingVersion="0.3.16b.02.24.4002">

                  <author>Stefan Hermann</author>
                  <version>2</version>
                  <title>Blue LED - 5mm</title>
                  <url></url>
                  <label>LED</label>
                  <date>2008-10-10</date>
                  <description>A generic blue LED (~1.8V)</description>
                  <tags>
                      <tag>LED</tag>
                      <tag>Blue LED</tag>
                      <tag>indicator</tag>
                      <tag>fritzing core</tag>
                  </tags>

                  <properties>
                      <property name="family">Potentiometer</property>
                      <property name="type">Trimmer Potentiometer</property>
                      <property name="Maximum Resistance">10k&#8486;</property>
                      <property name="Track">Linear</property>
                      <property name="Size">Trimmer - 6mm</property>
                  </properties>

                  <views>
                      <iconView>
                          <layers image="icon/LED-blue-5mmicon.svg" >
                              <layer layerId="icon" />
                          </layers>
                      </iconView>
                      <breadboardView fliphorizontal="true" flipvertical="true" >
                          <layers image="breadboard/LED-5mm-blue.svg" >
                              <layer layerId="breadboard" />
                          </layers>
                      </breadboardView>
                      <schematicView>
                          <layers image="schematic/led.svg" >
                              <layer layerId="schematic" />
                          </layers>
                      </schematicView>
                      <pcbView>
                          <layers image="pcb/T1.75_LED.svg" >
                              <layer layerId="copper0" />
                              <layer layerId="copper1" />
                              <layer layerId="silkscreen" />
                          </layers>
                      </pcbView>
                  </views>

                  <connectors>
                      <connector type="male" id="connector0" name="cathode" >
                          <description>cathode pin</description>
                          <views>
                              <breadboardView>
                                  <p svgId="connector0pin" layer="breadboard" terminalId="connector0terminal" />
                              </breadboardView>
                              <schematicView>
                                  <p svgId="connector0pin" layer="schematic" terminalId="connector0terminal" />
                              </schematicView>
                              <pcbView>
                                  <p svgId="connector0pad" layer="copper0" />
                                  <p svgId="connector0pad" layer="copper1" />
                              </pcbView>
                          </views>
                      </connector>
                      <connector type="male" id="connector1" name="anode" >
                          <description>anode pin</description>
                          <views>
                              <breadboardView>
                                  <p svgId="connector1pin" layer="breadboard" terminalId="connector1terminal" />
                              </breadboardView>
                              <schematicView>
                                  <p svgId="connector1pin" layer="schematic" terminalId="connector1terminal" />
                              </schematicView>
                              <pcbView>
                                  <p svgId="connector1pad" layer="copper0" />
                                  <p svgId="connector1pad" layer="copper1" />
                              </pcbView>
                          </views>
                      </connector>
                  </connectors>
              • About SVGs
                • superset of SVG 1.2 Tiny
                • Inkscape
                  • put transform in g element, instead of graphical element
                • More SVG topics
                  • drill="no"
                  • id="noconn"
                  • id="boardoutline"
            • Graphics standards
          • Tutorials
          • Inkscape
            • fitxers / files
              • name sample obsolete sample (templates) content
                <my_part>_breadboard.svg fritzing-parts/svg/user/breadboard/74xx08_breadboard.svg FontsAndTemplates/Templates/BreadboardViewGraphic_Template.svg <g id="breadboard">
                  <!-- text with id=label will be replaced by text in Metadata tab: Title -->
                  <text id="label" font-family="Droid Sans" ...>74xx08</text>

                  <text id="label2" font-family="OCRA" ...>IC</text>   <!-- will not work: style="font-family:'Droid Sans'; -->
                </g>
                <my_part>_schematic.svg fritzing-parts/svg/user/schematic/74xx08_schematic.svg FontsAndTemplates/Templates/SchematicViewGraphic_Template.svg <g id="schematic">
                  <text transform="..."
                fill="#000000" font-family="'DroidSans'" font-size="6">Part</text>
                  <g id="pins">
                    <line .../>
                  </g>
                  <g id="pin_numbers">
                    <text transform="..." fill="#555555" font-family="'DroidSans'" font-size="3">5</text>
                  </g>
                  <g id="pin_labels">

                    <text transform="..." fill="#555555" font-family="'DroidSans'" font-size="4.5">Out</text>   </g>
                </g>
                <my_part>_icon.svg fritzing-parts/svg/user/icon/74xx08_icon.svg
                <g id="icon"...
                <my_part>_pcb.svg fritzing-parts/svg/user/pcb/74xx08_pcb.svg FontsAndTemplates/Templates/PCBViewGraphic_Template.svg
                <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8' standalone='no'?>
                <svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" baseProfile="tiny" version="1.2" x="0in" y="0in" width="0.42in" height="0.72in" viewBox="0 0 420 720">
                  <g id="pcb"></g>
                  <g id="keepout"></g>
                  <g id="soldermask"></g>
                  <g id="outline"></g>
                  <g id="silkscreen">
                    <line y1="10" x2="10" x1="10" y2="710" stroke="white" stroke-width="10"/>
                  </g>
                  <g id="copper0">
                    <g id="copper1">
                      <rect id="square" x="32.5" y="32.5" width="55" height="55" fill="none" stroke="rgb(255, 191, 0)" stroke-width="20"/>
                      <circle id="connector0pin" cx="60" cy="60" r="27.5" fill="none" stroke="rgb(255, 191, 0)" stroke-width="20"/>
                    </g>
                  </g>
                </svg>





            • regles / rules (Providing Part Graphics, About SVGs)
              • tipografia / fonts:
                • Droid Sans
                • OCRA
              • single layer
              • group all graphical elements and rename this group according to what it represents (“breadboard”, "schematic", "pcb" or "icon").
              • select all elements, "Fit page to selection"
              • deseu-lo com a «SVG simple» / save as "Plain SVG"
          • Fritzing (New) Parts Editor
            • import it with "Load image for view", in the corresponding tab
            • connect all connectors in each tab
            • Save will save files at: ~/Documents/Fritzing/parts/, as <prefix>_<random>_{breadboard,icon,pcb,schematic}.svg
              • svg/
                • user/
                  • breadboard/
                    • <prefix>_<random>_breadboard.svg
                  • icon/
                    • <prefix>_<random>_icon.svg
                  • pcb/
                    • <prefix>_<random>_pcb.svg
                  • schematic/
                    • <prefix>_<random>_schematic.svg
              • user/
                • <prefix>_<random>.fzp
        • repositories
    • gEDA suite
      • Tutorials
        • gschem Warmup for Beginners
        • gschem -> gsch2pcb -> PCB
          • dir structure
            • ~
              • .gEDA
                • gafrc
                  • (component-library "${HOME}/gaf/gschem-sym")
                • gschemrc
                  • (load (build-path geda-rc-path "gschem-colormap-lightbg")) ; light background
              • gaf
                • gschem-sym/
                  • transistors/
                • pcb-elements/
                  • ...
                • myproject1/
                  • packages -> ../pcb-elements/
                  • project
                    • schematics one.sch two.sch
                      output-name board
                  • one.sch
                  • two.sch
          • Passos / Steps
            1. gschem one.sch
            2. gschem two.sch
            3. refdes_renum --pgskip one.sch two.sch
            4. gsch2pcb [-v] project
              • board.pcb
              • board.net
            5. pcb board.pcb
              • Select -> Disperse all elements
              • File -> Load netlist file: board.net
              • Connects -> Optimize rats nest (O)
              • Select -> Auto place selected elements
        • Getting Started With PCB
      • Elements


        • source
          system
          examples
          contrib
          tool
          user dir
          setup








          gschem: project
          pcb
          gscheme symbols

          symbols/
          /usr/share/gEDA/sym/

          gedasymbols
          ~/gaf/gschem-sym/


          pcb footprints
          m4 macros (old style: still used to define family parts)

          *.inc (-> .m4, .list)
          /usr/[local]/share/pcb/m4/
          • (pcblib)
            • ~amp (amp.list)
            • ...
            • ~geda (geda.list)
            • ...
          Footprint naming conventions
          • Element ( ... )
          • integrated circuits
            • DIP8
            • DIP18 (same as DIL 18 300)
          • resistor
            • R025 (1/4W)

          10.1 Old Style (m4) Libraries
          Custom M4 elements
          gschem
          m4 arguments
          footprint
          $1: canonical name
          refdes
          $2: name on PCB
          value
          $3: value


          • m4-file /path/to/anyfile
          • m4-pcbdir /path/to/pcb/m4
          • # m4 program is gm4 instead of m4:
            m4-command gm4

          file elements (new style: from pcb program)
          *.fp
          /usr/[local]/share/pcb/
          • pcblib-newlib
            • amp
            • amphenol
            • aries
            • bourns
            • candk
            • connector
            • crystal
            • cts
            • geda
            • generic
            • gtag
            • johnstech
            • minicircuits
            • nichicon
            • optek
            • optical
            • panasonic
            • pci
            • tdk
            • toko
            • unide_chemicon
          • newlib
            • 2_pin_trhu-hole_packages
            • connectors
            • crystal
            • electro-optics
            • headers
            • msp430
            • not_vetted_ingo
            • tests
          • Element [ ... ]
          • capacitor
            • ...
          • transistor (guide)
            • TO92
          • connector
            • newlib/connectors/
              • 3terminal_screw_block
            • ...

          10.2 New Style Libraries
          Custom file elements
          • create VIA
          • N: 1, 2
          • top silk
          • LINE
          • SEL
          • Buffer -> Cut selection to buffer + click on 1
          • Buffer -> Convert buffer to element
          • Buffer -> Save buffer elements to file
          ~/gaf/pcb-elements/
          • elements-dir /usr/local/share/pcb/pcb-elements
          • elements-dir ~/gaf/pcb-elements/
          File -> Preferences -> Library
      • gedasymbols
      • gaf
        • Components
          • gschem: schematic capture
          • gnetlist: netlist generation
          • gattrib: attribute editor
          • utilities
            • gaf
            • utilities for schematics: refdes_renum, grenum, garchive, gschlas
            • utilities for symbols: gsymcheck, gsymfix, gmk_sym, tragesym
            • tools to facilitate netlisting: gsch2pcb, gnet_hier_verilog.sh
            • utilities for printing and graphical output: schdiff, gpstoimage
            • format conversion tools: convert_sym, smash_megafile, olib, sarlacc_schem, sarlacc_sym
            • tools for interaction with other programs: gxyrs, sw2asc, pads_backannotate, pcb_backannotate
            • update utilities: gschupdate, gsysmupdate
        • Instal·lació / Installation
          • compilació / compilation
            • Dependències / Dependencies
              • Mageia
                • urpmi lib64guile-devel
            • git clone --depth 10 git://git.geda-project.org/geda-gaf.git
            • cd geda-gaf
            • ./autogen.sh && make && sudo make install
          • Mageia
            • urpmi geda
          • /usr/share/gEDA/sym/...
          • /etc/
        • Ús / Usage




          • Edit
            E
            E
            edit element


            I
            mirror


            N
            make attributes visible


            R
            rotate
            View
            V
            E
            view extents
      • pcb
        • Instal·lació / Installation
          • compilació / compilation
            • README.git
            • INSTALL
            • Dependències / Dependencies
              • Mageia
                • urpmi intltool texinfo-tex lib64dbus-devel lib64freeglut-devel lib64gtkglext-devel lib64gd-devel
            • git clone --depth 10 git://git.geda-project.org/pcb.git
            • cd pcb
            • ./autogen.sh && make && sudo make install
          • Mageia
            • urpmi pcb
        • Ús / Usage



          • View
            z
            zoom



            Edit
            F9
            ROT tool

            TAB
            flip board

            u
            undo
            Routes f
            View route

            o
            Optimize rats nest

Robots

  • K-Team (miniature mobile robot)

USB

http://www.francescpinyol.cat/.html
Primera versió: / First version:
Darrera modificació: 6 de febrer de 2021 / Last update: 6th February 2021

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